King Ahmose from the New Kingdom expelled the Hyksos from ancient Egypt

King Ahmose  from the New Kingdom expelled the Hyksos from ancient Egypt
King Ahmose  from the New Kingdom expelled the Hyksos from ancient Egypt

Although Ahmose (ruled c. 1539–14 BCE) had been preceded by Kamose, who was either his father or his brother, Egyptian tradition regarded Ahmose as the founder of a new dynasty because he was the native ruler who reunified Egypt. Continuing a recently inaugurated practice, he married his full sister Ahmose-Nefertari. The queen was given the title of God’s Wife of Amon. Like her predecessors of the 17th dynasty, Queen Ahmose-Nofretari was influential and highly honored. A measure of her importance was her posthumous veneration at Thebes, where later pharaohs were depicted offering to her as a goddess among the gods.

Real life in ancient Egyptian civilization: Episode one


 

Ahmose’s campaigns to expel the Hyksos from the Nile River delta and regain former Egyptian territory to the south probably started around his 10th regnal year. Destroying the Hyksos stronghold at Avaris, in the eastern delta, he finally drove them beyond the eastern frontier and then besieged Sharuḥen (Tell el-Fārʿah) in southern Palestine; the full extent of his conquests may have been much greater. His penetration of the Middle East came at a time when there was no major established power in the region. This political gap facilitated the creation of an Egyptian “empire.”

 

Ahmose’s officers and soldiers were rewarded with spoil and captives, who became personal slaves. This marked the creation of an influential military class. Like Kamose, Ahmose campaigned as far south as Buhen. For the administration of the regained territory, he created a new office, overseer of southern foreign lands, which ranked second only to the vizier. Its incumbent was accorded the honorific title of king’s son, indicating that he was directly responsible to the king as deputy.

The middle kingdom in ancient Egypt


 

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The early New Kingdom bureaucracy was modeled on that of The Middle Kingdom. The vizier was the chief administrator and the highest judge of the realm. By the mid-15th century BCE, the office had been divided into two, one vizier for Upper and one for Lower Egypt. During the 18th dynasty, some young bureaucrats were educated in temple schools, reinforcing the integration of civil and priestly sectors. Early in the dynasty, many administrative posts were inherited, but the royal appointments of capable officials, often selected from military officers who had served the king on his campaigns, later became the rule. The trend was thus away from bureaucratic families and the inheritance of office

 

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