Joseph in the history of ancient Egypt

Joseph in the history of ancient Egypt
Joseph in the history of ancient Egypt

 
Historians have differed, and there have been many studies and researches, as usual, about the personality of the Prophet of God, Yusuf ibn Yaqub, or as he is known as “Yusuf al-Siddiq,” and the period he lived through in Egypt since he set foot on its land when he was a young boy, until the departure of Bani Yaqoub – the tribes of Yusuf’s brothers – from Egypt and their return to Palestine once. others after his death
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The Great Pyramid
 

This ambiguity and difference in the dating of the life of the Prophet of God were reinforced by the disappearance of historical clues and evidence that determine the details of the period that Joseph lived in the land of Kinana, and the researchers concerned with the study of ancient history relied on their history and analysis of the era of "Joseph Al-Siddiq" in Egypt on the books of the Torah and the verses of the Holy Quran as the most important historical sources In addition to some of the events immortalized in the walls of temples and papyri to create a kind of convergence between the sources to know the mysteries of this mysterious period in the history of Egypt and the ancient world.

 

A team of historians and archaeologists believes that Joseph, peace be upon him, is Amenhotep, the first engineer known to mankind. He was a minister who lived during the reign of King Djoser, the founder of the third dynasty and the owner of the first pyramid in history, given that the characteristics of Imhotep, which mean the coming in peace, match the characteristics of the noble prophet of intelligence, humility, and honesty. With sincerity and familiarity with all branches of knowledge, he was an engineer, physician, poet, and scientist in the movement of planets and stars.

 

Joseph, minister to Djoser

The researchers also depend on this perception that there was a great famine recorded by the Pharaonic papyri, which befell Egypt, Palestine, and the Levant during the era of King Djoser, and this is consistent with Joseph's vision mentioned in the Holy Qur'an. These researchers also linked the confusion surrounding the body of our master Joseph until now with the disappearance of the body of "Imhotep" the owner of the idea of ​​planning the Step Pyramid of Djoser.

 

This is consistent with the opinion of the great archaeologist, Dr. Zahi Hawass, in one of his articles on the life of the Prophet of God Joseph in Egypt, as he confirms that historical evidence indicates that the title “king” or “Neso” in the ancient Egyptian language was given to the Egyptian rulers until the beginning of The era of the New Kingdom, specifically Akhenaten - the first king to be called "Pharaoh" or "Bero", meaning the inhabitant of the Great Palace -, pointing out that this does not contradict the Qur'anic text that mentioned the title "king" and not "Pharaoh" as is the case in the story of our master Moses in The Holy Quran.

 

Hawass explained that the period of the Old Kingdom was struck by several famines that reached Palestine and the Levant in Asia, in addition, the walls of the temples recorded the seven cows, in the symbolism of our master Joseph’s interpretation of the dream of Aziz Egypt, adding that archaeological evidence indicated more than one famine that struck Egypt. In ancient and medieval times, as well as in the Levant and Palestine, sometimes drought was pervading the entire Middle East, and the Bedouins of these regions would come to Egypt to take from the grain that Joseph had stored for such difficult days.

 

Joseph and Akhenaten

A large number of foreign researchers and orientalists, in their study of the life of the Holy Prophet in Egypt, tried to bring him closer to "Amenhotep IV" or "Akhenaten" as he called himself, being the first king who advocated monotheism in Egypt, and he took Tel el-Amarna as his new capital away from Thebes. Luxor is the center of worship of the god "Amun-Ra", the sun god.

 

While another group tends to believe that Joseph, peace be upon him, is not Akhenaten, but rather lived in his era, until he reached the age of 111, and that he came to Egypt at the age of seventeen years of age among some of the boys who were sold as slaves to the palace of the king at the time, and he was close to him.

 

Historical studies indicate that Egypt was subjected during the reign of Akhenaten to two famines in two consecutive years, which spread to Palestine and the Levant, and that Jacob, peace is upon him, moved to Egypt when Joseph reached the age of fifty-five, and that “the friend died in Egypt and was buried there, except that he bequeathed to his brothers Before his death, they had to transfer his remains to the land of Canaan - present-day Palestine.

 

It is the opinion that Dr. Ramadan Abdo, a professor of ancient history at Ain Shams University, disagrees with, in his study on the period during which the Prophet of God Joseph lived, given that the Holy Qur’an titled the ruler who was contemporary with Joseph, peace be upon him, as king, and that this title was not known in Egypt before the era of Thutmose. Third: Akhenaten was the first to be called “Pharaoh.”

Jobs in ancient Egypt
 

Some Muslim researchers reject this trend because the features of Akhenaten’s face embodied in the Pharaonic statues confirm that he was not of a great deal of handsomeness and beauty, which is completely contradictory to the story of our master Joseph, and the Qur’anic description of him and his beauty, which bewitched the dear woman and tempted him about himself and after her. Egyptian princesses.

 

Joseph and the Hyksos

Most Arab historians have suggested that the era in which our master Joseph lived was the era of the Asian shepherd kings, the "Hyksos", as Dr. The king, indicating that the Egyptians did not know the chariots as a means of transportation before the era of the shepherd kings, and they were the first to introduce fast war chariots to Egypt, pointing out that the historical inscriptions on the walls of the temples did not date these chariots before the era of the Hyksos.

 

In his study, Mahran also relies on the fact that the ancient Egyptian royal traditions did not allow foreigners to hold high and high positions in the state, and they could not reach the rank of ministers. Rather, their tasks were limited to grazing and raising sheep, as they were residents of the sands, as mentioned in the Egyptian papyri.

The researcher stated that the descent of the Hyksos from North Asian Semitic origins, who are close to the Hebrews, allowed Joseph to reach the highest positions in the state, and to welcome the sons of Jacob after that.

 

Erasing Joseph's traces

Several researchers explain the poverty of Egyptian history with historical evidence that records the period in which Joseph lived, indicating that he lived during the era of the shepherd kings - the Hyksos - who were characterized by ambiguity, in addition to the fact that the Egyptians refrained from recording any memory of these abhorrent ages, considering the Hyksos as invaders and occupiers of Egyptian lands, especially Its northern part - Lower Egypt -.

Dr. Attia Al-Qusi, a professor of Islamic history at Cairo University, says in one of his studies that it is most likely that our master Joseph lived during the era of the shepherd kings of the Hyksos, and after Egypt was liberated by Ahmose the First, a new Egyptian king rose to the throne of Egypt who did not know Joseph, As stated in Exodus 1:8, they violently excluded the Israelites, who are the sons and grandsons of Joseph, his brothers in Egypt, and destroyed all their homes and buildings, which is a major reason for not finding any trace mentioning the name of Joseph or any of his brothers. Given that the Egyptians who came after Joseph did not know his merit in saving the country from famine, but rather considered him one of the helpers of the shepherd kings who usurped the throne of the country for about 4 centuries.

 

What we know about the place in Egypt where Prophet Yusuf lived

A major controversy has erupted over the place where Prophet Yusuf (Joseph) lived in Egypt thousands of years ago.

Some claim that he lived in the area of Kom Oshim in Fayoum, southwest of Egypt while others think that he lived in the area of Luxor, which was called Tiba (Thebes); the location of the headquarters of the government and the residence of the ruler Akhenaten back then.

There is also another view that he lived in the area of Edfu Aswan. However, the fact remains that Prophet Yusuf lived in the area of Jushan or Wadi al-Tumailat (Al Tumailat valley) which is an area between the provinces of Al Sharqeya and Al Ismailia.

 

Archaeologist Dr. Abdel Rahim Rihan, Director General of Research and Archaeological Studies and Scientific Publications of the Sea and Sinai, told Al Arabiya that Yusuf’s stay in Egypt was during the sixteenth Dynasty of King Ibbabi I who was mentioned in the Old Testament (Turah) as “Fotifar” and Egypt’s Aziz in the Quran.

An antique plaque of a tombstone was found with the engraving of his name “Foti Fara” which belongs to the seventeenth Dynasty. This royal family ruled shortly after the massive drought that happened in Egypt, which is mentioned in the Quran and the Turah.

Therefore, Prophet Yusuf and his brothers are thought to have lived in Egypt closer to the year 1600 BC during the Hyksos invaders descended into the region.

 

Archaeologist Dr. Abdel Rahim Rihan says that the word Israel means (Worshiper of God) which is synonymous with the Arabic name Abd Allah. The Holy Quran refers to the descendants of the prophets as, “those who were blessed - the descendants of the prophets, Adam as well as those who were carried with Noah and the offspring of Abraham and Israel” (Quran: Maryam 58).

Yusuf and his brothers are also mentioned in the Quran as the sons of Israel referring to their father Allah’s Prophet Jacob (Yacoub). The sons of Israel, including Yusuf, lived together in Egypt in the land of Jushan or Gasan, now known as Wadi al-Tumailat, a farming valley that extends from the city of Zagazig in al-Sharqeya to the west of al-Ismailia.

Their stay in Egypt lasted until the birth of Prophet Moses (Mussa), the son of Imran. Mussa bin Imran bin Yashr bin Qahith bin Lawi bin Yacoub was born to Lawi (Levi), one of Yusuf’s brothers. Dr. Rihan explained that the title of the ruler of Egypt during the Hyksos invaders’ rule was “king”, while the title “Pharaoh” was granted to any ruler, not one in particular.

This highlights the miracle of the Holy Quran which refers to the governor of Egypt when talking about the story of the prophet Moses and the exodus ruler as pharaoh, not king. The verse is “we tell you the true story of Moses and the pharaoh for those who believe” (Quran: Al Qasas 3 ).

The reference for the ruler in the Quran, during the migration of Yusuf to Egypt, is the king. This is what the verse says: “The king said I see in my dreams seven fat cows feeding on seven skinny ones and seven green grains and others parched,” (Quran: Yusuf 43), and in “The king said to bring him (Joseph) to me, I will take him under my wing” (Quran: Yusuf 54).

They confirm that Prophet Yusuf, and his brothers, lived in Egypt during the era of the Hyksos invaders.

Daily Life in Ancient Egypt

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